FAQ: What affects the efficiency of Golden Gate Assembly?

Single insert cloning is more efficient than multiple insert cloning. Assembly efficiency decreases as the number of fragments increases. The presence of repetitive sequences in an insert will also decrease efficiency. For inserts < 250 bp or > 3 kb, precloning will increase efficiency. Lastly, the normal restrictions on overall plasmid size to allow stable maintenance in E. coli apply to Golden Gate Assemblies. Efficiencies are highest with assembled product plasmid constructs < 12 kb. Larger assemblies can be made but will require larger numbers of colonies to be screened for the correct full length assembled products. For experimental examples of complexity vs. efficiency, refer to the Golden Gate Assembly Technical Note.