Protein Expression

Protein Expression & Purification Technologies

Protein expression and purification can be very challenging because there is no single approach that is appropriate for every protein or downstream application.

Successful expression can be affected by each individual protein’s solubility, toxicity, need for post-translational modifications or its intrinsic ability to fold. Additionally, the application for which the protein is ultimately to be used may dictate how the protein needs to be expressed or purified. It is therefore important to have a flexible set of tools and methods that can be applied to each unique project.

Each NEB expression technology offers different advantages enabling you to choose the strategy that best suits your protein expression and purification needs. Many of the expression vectors share a compatible polylinker, enabling the gene of interest to be easily shuffled between systems. Various applications along with the recommended NEB kit can be found by clicking the sidebar tab.

Solutions for the Expression of Difficult Proteins


NEB has a long history in recombinant protein expression and has developed a wide array of solutions for proteins that are difficult to express.

NEB has a long history in recombinant protein expression and has developed a wide array of solutions for proteins that are difficult to express.

Featured Products

Protein Expression & Purification Technologies includes these subcategories:

Cell-Free Expression
SHuffle strains for the expression of multi-disulfide bonded and difficult-to-express proteins
E. coli
Magnetic Matrices and Racks

    Publications related to Protein Expression & Purification Technologies:

  1. Ganatra, M.B., Rainauskas, S., Hong, J.M., Taylor, T.E., Denson, J.P.M., Esposito, D., Read, J.D., Schmeisser, H., Zoon, K.C., Hartley, J.L. and Taron, C.H. (2011). A set of aspartyl protease-deficient strains for improved expression of heterologous proteins in Kluyveromyces lactis FEMS Yeast Res.. 11, 168-178.
  2. Feng, Z., et al. (2011). Disruption of PMR1 in Kluyveromyces lactis improves secretion of calf prochymosin J. Sci. Food Agric.. 15, 100-103.
  3. Narayan, V., Pion, E., Landré, V., Müller, P. and Ball, K.L. (2011). Docking-dependent ubiquitination of the interferon regulatory factor-1 tumor suppressor protein by the ubiquitin ligase CHIP J. Biol. Chem. . 286, 607-619.
  4. Rosner, K., Kasprzak, M.F., Horenstein, A.C., Thurston, H.L., Abrams, J., Kerwin, L.Y., Mehregan, D.A. and Mehregan, D.R. (2011). Engineering a waste management enzyme to overcome cancer resistance to apoptosis: adding DNase1 to the anti-cancer toolbox Cancer Gene Ther. . 18, 346-357.
  5. Zhou, X., et al. (2011). Expression of heparin sulfate sulfotransferases in Kluyveromyces lactisand preparation of PAPS Glycobiology Advance Access.
  6. Rocha S.N., et al. (2011). Heterologous expression of a thermophilic esterase in Kluyveromyces yeasts Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.. 89, 375-85.
  7. Yamamoto, S., Izumiya, H., Mitobe, J., Morita, M., Arakawa, E., Ohnishi, M. and Watanabe, H. (2011). Identification of a chitin-induced small RNA that regulates translation of the tfoX gene, encoding a positive regulator of natural competence in Vibrio cholerae J Bacteriol. . 193, 1953-1965.
  8. Iizuka, R., Yamagishi-Shirasaki, M. and Funatsu, T. (2011). Kinetic study of de novo chromophore maturation of fluorescent proteins Anal. Biochem. . Apr 1., PubMedID: 21459075
  9. Midon, M., Schäfer, P., Pingoud, A., Ghosh, M., Moon, A.F., Cuneo, M.J., London, R.E. and Meiss, G. (2011). Mutational and biochemical analysis of the DNA-entry nuclease EndA from Streptococcus pneumoniae Nucleic Acids Res. . 39, 623-634.
  10. Feng, Z., et al. (2011). Optimization of Medium Composition for Production of Recombinant Calf Chymosin from Kluyveromyces lactis in Submerged Fermentation J. of Northeast Agricultural University. 18, 56-62.
  11. Lamichhane, T.N., Abeydeera, N.D., Duc, A.C., Cunningham, P.R. and Chow, C.S (2011). Selection of peptides targeting helix 31 of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA by screening M13 phage-display libraries Molecules . 16, 1211-1239.
  12. Panayiotou, C., Solaroli, N., Xu, Y., Johansson, M. and Karlsson, A. (2011). The characterization of human adenylate kinases 7 and 8 demonstrates differences in kinetic parameters and structural organization among the family of adenylate kinase isoenzymes Biochem J.  . 2433, 527-534.
  13. De Masi, F., Grove, C.A., Vedenko, A., Alibés, A., Gisselbrecht, S.S., Serrano, L., Bulyk, M.L. and Walhout, A.J. (2011). Using a structural and logics systems approach to infer bHLH-DNA binding specificity determinants Nucleic Acids Res. . 18-Feb, PubMedID: 21335608
  14. Handa, Y., Inaho, N. and Nameki, N. (2011). YaeJ is a novel ribosome-associated protein inEscherichia coli that can hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on stalled ribosomes Nucleic Acids Res.  . 39, 1739-1748.
  15. Karukurichi, K. et al. (2010). Analysis of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase regulation using circular permutation and semisynthesis J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 132, 1222- 1223. PubMedID: 20063892
  16. Chen, J., et al. (2010). Chemically ubiquitylated PCNA as a probe for eukaryotic translesion DNA synthesis Nat. Chem. Biol. . 6, 270-272. PubMedID: 20208521
  17. Collins, E. D., et. al. (2010). Cloning the human vitamin D receptor into the pTwin-1 expression vector J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. PubMedID: 20171280
  18. Feng, Z., et al. (2010). Codon optimization of the calf prochymosin gene and its expression inKluyveromyces lactis World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.. 26, 895-901.
  19. Lu, X., et al. (2010). Designed semisynthetic protein inhibitors of ub/ubl e1 activating enzymes J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 132, 1748-1749. PubMedID: 20099854
  20. Kuo, D., et al. (2010). Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering Gen. Bio. . 11, R77.
  21. Yu, H. H., et. al. (2010). Expressed protein ligation for the preparation of fusion proteins with cell penetrating peptides for endotoxin removal and intracellular delivery Biochim Biophys Acta . PubMedID: 20170629
  22. Manconi, B., et. al. (2010). Expression, purification, phosphorylation and characterization of recombinant human statherin Protein Expr Purif.. 69, 219-225. PubMedID: 19651217
  23. Yuan W, et al. (2010). Gene synthesis of the bovine prochymosin gene and high-level expression in Kluyvermyces lactis Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 26, 1281-1286.
  24. Rocha, S.N., et al. (2010). Heterologous expression of glucose oxidase in the yeastKluyveromyces marxianus Microb. Cell Fact.. 21,
  25. Asahara, H. and Chong, S. (2010). In vitro genetic reconstruction of bacterial transcription initiation by coupled synthesis and detection of RNA polymerase holoenzyme Nucleic Acids Res. . 38(13), e141.
  26. Lu, M., et. al. (2010). Purification of untagged HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by affinity chromatography Protein Expr. Purif.. 71, 231-239.
  27. Ueda, T., Kanamori, T., Ohashi, H. (2010). Ribosome display with the PURE technology Methods Mol Biol. . 607, 219-25.
  28. Theerthagiri, G., Eisenhardt, N., Schwarz, H. and Antonin, W. (2010). The nucleoporin Nup188 controls passage of membrane proteins across the nuclear pore complex  J. Cell Biol.  . 189, 1129-1142.
  29. Noto, T., Kurth, H., Kataoka, K., Aronica, L., DeSouza, L., Siu, K., Pearlman, R., Gorovsky, M. and Mochizuki, K. (2010). The tetrahymena argonaute-binding protein Giw1p directs a mature argonaute-siRNA complex to the nucleus Cell . 140, 692-703.
  30. Shen, B.W., Heiter, D.F., Chan, S.H., Wang, H., Xu, S.Y., Morgan, R.D., Wilson, G.G. and Stoddard, B.L. (2010). Unusual target site disruption by the rare-cutting HNH restriction endonuclease PacI Structure . 18, 734-743.
  31. Feng, Y. and Cronan, J. E. (2009). A new member of the Eschericia coli fad regulon: transcriptional regulation of fadM (ybaW) J. Bacteriol. . 191, 6320-6328.
  32. Feng, Z., et al (2009). Effect of temperature-shift strategy on recombinat chymosin ofKluyveromyces Lactis Heilongjiang Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine. 2009-2013.
  33. Tanner, D., Cariello, D., Woolstenhulme, C., Broadbent, M. and Buskirk, A. (2009). Geneticidentification of nascent peptides that induce ribosome stalling J. Biol. Chem. . 284, 34809-34818.
  34. Solaroli, N., Panayiotou, C., Johansson, M., and Karlsson, A. (2009). Identification of two active functional domains of human adenylate kinase 5 FEBS Lett. . 583, 2872-2876.
  35. Talabot-Ayer, D., Lamacchia, C., Gabay, C., and Palmer, G. (2009). Interleukin-33 is biologically active independently of Caspase-1 cleavage J. Biol. Chem. . 284, 19420-19426.
  36. Estevez-Torres, A., Crozatier, C., Diguet, A., Hara, T., Saito, H., Yoshikawa, K., and Baigl, D. (2009). Sequence-independent and reversible photocontrol of transcription/expression systems using a photosensitive nucleic acid binder Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.  . 106, 12219-12223.
  37. Chattopadhaya, S., et al. (2009). Site-specific covalent labeling of proteins inside live cells using small molecule probes Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 17, 981-9. PubMedID: 18261914
  38. Che, N., et. al. (2009). Soluble expression and one-step purification of a neurotoxin Huwentoxin-I in Escherichia coli Protein Expr Purif.. 65, 154-159.
  39. Madinger, C.L., Sharma, S.S., Anton, B.P., Fields, L.G., Cushing, M.L., Canovas, J., Taron, C.H. and Benner, J.S. (2009). The effect of carbon source on the secretome of Kluyveromyces lactis Proteomics. 9, 4744-4754.
  40. Chattopadhaya, S., et al. (2009). Use of intein-mediated protein ligation strategies for the fabrication of functional protein arrays Methods Enzymol.. 462, 195-223. PubMedID: 19632476
  41. Hondal, R. J. (2009). Using chemical approaches to study selenoproteins-Focus on thioredoxin reductases Biochim. Biophys. Acta.. 1790, 1501-1512. PubMedID: 19406205
  42. Zheng, Y., Posfai, J., Morgan, R. D., Vincze, T., and Roberts, R.J. (2009). Using shotgun sequence data to find active restriction enzyme genes Nuc. Acid. Res. . 37, el.
  43. Ottesen, J. et al. (2008). An amalgamation of solid phase peptide synthesis and ribosomal peptide synthesis Biopolymers. 90, 406-414. PubMedID: 17636509
  44. Zhao, W. et al. (2008). An efficient on-column expressed protein ligation strategy: application to segmental triple labeling of human apolipoprotein E3 Protein Sci. . 17, 736-747. PubMedID: 18305193
  45. Kazuta, Y., Adachi, J., Matsuura, T., Ono, N., Mori, H. and Yomo T. (2008). Comprehensive Analysis of the Effects of Eschericia coli ORF's on Protein Translation Reaction Molecular & Cellular Proteomics . 7, 1530-1540.
  46. Babu, S.K., et. al. (2008). Construction of intein mediated hGMCSF expression Protein Exp. Purif.. 57, 201-205.
  47. Chen, Y. Q., et. al. (2008). Expression of a cytotoxic cationic antibacterial peptide in Escherichia coli using two fusion partners Protein Exp. Purif.. 57, 303-311.
  48. Platko, J.D., et al. (2008). Heterologous expression of Mytilus californianus foot protein three (Mcfp-3) in Kluyveromyces lactis Platko, J.D., et al.. 57, 57-62.
  49. Skrisovska, L. et al. (2008). Improved segmental isotope labeling methods for the NMR study of multidomain or large proteins: application to the RRMs of Npl3p and hnRNP L. J. Mol. Biol.. 375, 151-164. PubMedID: 17936301
  50. Vazquez-Laslop, N., Thum, C., and Mankin, A.S. (2008). Molecular Mechanism of Drug-Dependent Ribosome Stalling  Mol. Cell. . 30, 190-202.
  51. Swaim, C.L., et al. (2008). Physical and computational analysis of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactissecreted proteome Proteomics. 8, 2714-2723.
  52. Zhao, Z., et. al. (2008). Purification of green fluorescent protein using a two-intein system Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.. 77, 1175-1180.
  53. Subtelny. A. O.,Hartman, M. C. T., and Szostak, J. W. (2008). Ribosomal Synthesis of N-Methyl Peptides  J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 130, 6131-6136.
  54. Sako, Y., Goto, Y., Murakami, H., and Suga, H. (2008). Ribosomal Synthesis of Peptidase-Resistant Peptides Closed by a Nonreducible Inter-Side-Chain Bond ACS Chem. Biol.  . 3, 241-249.
  55. Takakuwa, N., Oshnishi, M., and Oda, Y. (2008). Significance of the KLAC1 gene in glucosylceramide production by Kluyveromyces lactis FEMS Yeast Res. 9, 839-846.
  56. Uemura, S., Iizuka, R., Ueno, T., Shimizu, Y., Taguchi, H., Ueda, T., Puglisi. J., and Funatsu, T. (2008). Singke molecule imaging of full protein synthesis by immobilized ribosomes Nuc. Acid. Res.  . 36, e90.
  57. Sugiki, T. Shimada, I. and Takahashi H. (2008). Stable isotope labeling of protein byKluyveromyces lactis for NMR study J. Biomol NMR.. 42, 159-62.
  58. Foster, J.M., Raverdy, S., Ganatra, M.B., Colussi, P.A., Taron, C.H. and Carlow, C.K.S. (2008). The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active phosphoglycerate mutase: a candidate target for anti-filarial therapies Parasitol. Res. .
  59. Stasser, J. P., et. al. (2007). A multinuclear copper(I) cluster forms the dimerization interface in copper-loaded human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase Biochem. . 46, 11845-11856.
  60. Hassiepen, U., et. al. (2007). A sensitive fluorescence intensity assay for deubiquitinating proteases using ubiquitin-rhodamine110-glycine as substrate Anal Biochem.. 371, 201-207.
  61. Read, J.D., Colussi, P.A., Ganatra, M.B. and Taron, C.H. (2007). Acetamide selection of Kluyveromyces lactis cells transformed with an integrative vector leads to high frequency formation of multicopy strains Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 73, 5088-5096.
  62. Karow, A., et al. (2007). Authentic interdomain communication in an RNA helicase reconstituted by expressed protein ligation of two helicase domains FEBS J. . 2, 463-473. PubMedID: 17229151
  63. Zhao, H.L., et al. (2007). Circumventing the heterogeneity and instability J. Biotech. . 131, 245-252.
  64. Sun, L., et al. (2007). Design, preparation and use of ligated phosphoproteins: A novel approach to study protein phosphatases by dot blot array, ELISA and Western blot assays Methods. 42, 220-226. PubMedID: 17532508
  65. Hauser, P. S., et al. (2007). Expressed protein ligation using an N-terminal cysteine containing fragment generated in vivo from a pelB fusion protein Protein Expr. Purif.. 54, 227-233. PubMedID: 17493830
  66. Wamalwa, B.M., et al. (2007). High-Level Heterologous Expression of Bacillus halodurans Putative Xylanase Xyn11A (BH0899) in Kluyveromyces lactis Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.. 71, 688-693.
  67. Diao, H., et. al. (2007). Intein-mediated expression is an effective approach in the study of beta-defensins Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 357, 840-846.
  68. Bhat, R. K. and Berger, S. (2007). New and easy strategy for cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the 5S subunit of transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium f. shermanii Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.. 37, 13-26.
  69. Murtas, G., Kuruma, Y., Bianchini, P., Diaspro, A., and Luisi, P.L. (2007). Protein synthesis in liposomes with a minimal set enzymes Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.  . 363, 12-17.
  70. Ohta, A., Murakami, H., Higashimura, E., and Suga, H. (2007). Synthesis of Polyester by Means of Genetic Code Reprogramming Chem. Biol. . 14, 1315-1322.
  71. Paulick, M. G., et al. (2007). Synthetic analogues of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and their behavior in supported lipid bilayers J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 129, 11543-11550. PubMedID: 17715922
  72. Kochinyan, S., et al. (2007). Use of intein-mediated phosphoprotein arrays to study substrate specificity of protein phosphatases Biotechniques. 42, 63-69. PubMedID: 17269486
  73. Hackenberger, C. P., et. al. (2006). Expression of N-terminal Cys-protein fragments using an intein refolding strategy Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 14, 5043-5048. PubMedID: 16554163
  74. Muto, H., Nakatogawa, H., and Ito, K. (2006). Genetically Encoded but Nonpolypeptide Prolyl-tRNA Functions in the A Site for SecM-Mediated Ribosomal Stall Mol. Cell.. 22, 545-552.
  75. Van Ooyen, A.J.J., Dekker, P., Huang, M., Olsthoorn, M.M.A., Jacobs, D.I., Colussi P.A., and Taron, C.H. (2006). Heterologous protein production in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis FEMS Yeast Res.. 6, 381-392.
  76. Villemagne, D., Jackson, R. and Douthwaite, J.A. (2006). Highly efficient ribosome display selection by use of purified components for in vitro translation J. Immunol Methods. 313, 140-148.
  77. Gottlieb, D., et al. (2006). Intein-mediated in vitro synthesis of lipidated Ras proteins Chem. Commun. (Camb). 21, 260-262. PubMedID: 16391727
  78. Wojtaszek, J., et al. (2006). LT CI, a novel chymotrypsin inhibitor of the potato I family from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression Comp. Biochem. Physiol B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. . 143, 465-472.
  79. Esipov, R.S., et. al. (2006). Production and purification of recombinant human glucagons overexpressed as intein fusion protein in Escherichia coli Protein Pept. Lett.. 13, 343-347.
  80. Demidov, V.V., and Broude, N.E. (2006). Profluorescent protein fragments for fast bimolecular fluorescence complementation in vitro Nat. Protoc.. 1, 714-719.
  81. Kalia, J., et al. (2006). Reactivity of intein thioesters: appending a functional group to a protein Chembiochem.. 7, 1375-1383. PubMedID: 16897799
  82. Kaiser, C.M., Chang, H.C., Agashe, V.R., Lakshmipathy, S.K., Etchells, S.A., Hayer-Hartl, M., Hartl, F.U. and Barral, J.M. (2006). Real-time observation of trigger factor function on translating ribosomes Nature. 444, 455-460.
  83. Eckenroth, B., et al. (2006). Semisynthesis and characterization of mammalian thioredoxin reductase Biochem.. 45, 5158-70. PubMedID: 16618105
  84. Shimizu, Y. and Ueda, T. (2006). SmpB triggers GTP hydrolysis of elongation factor Tu on ribosome by compensating for the lack of codon-anticodon interaction during trans-translation initiation J. Biol. Chem.. 281, 15987-15996.
  85. Lee, N.Y., et al. (2006). Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain Protein Sci.. 15, 1142-52. PubMedID: 16597832
  86. Grant, J., et al. (2006). The N terminus of GTP gamma S-activated transducin alpha-subunit interacts with the C terminus of the cGMP phosphodiesterase gammasubunit J. Biol. Chem. . 281, 6194-6202. PubMedID: 16407279
  87. Sando, S., Kanatani, K., Sato, N., Matsumoto, H. Hohsaka, T. and Aoyama, Y. (2005). A small-molecule-based approach to sense codon-templated natural-unnatural hybrid peptides. Selective silencing and reassignment of the sense codon by orthogonal reacylation stalling at the single-codon level J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 127, 7998-7999.
  88. Ingham, A.B., et al. (2005). A versatile system for the expression of nonmodified bacteriocins inEscherichia coli J. Appl. Microbiol. . 98, 676-683.
  89. Colussi, P.A., Specht, C.A. and Taron, C.H. (2005). Characterization of a nucleus-encoded chitinase from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 71, 2862-2869.
  90. Ying, B.W., Taguchi, H., Kondo, M. and Ueda, T. (2005). Co-translational involvement of the chaperonin GroEL in the folding of newly translated polypeptides J. Biol. Chem.. 280, 12035-12040.
  91. Kuruma, Y., Nishiyama, K., Shimizu, Y., Muller, M and Ueda, T. (2005). Development of a minimal cell-free translation system for the synthesis of presecretory and integral membrance proteins Biotechnol, Prog.. 21, 1243-1251.
  92. Rebets, Y., et al. (2005). DNA -binding activity of LndI protein and temporal expression of the gene that upregulates landomycin E production in Streptomyces globisporus 1912 Microbiology . 281-290. PubMedID: 15632445
  93. Morassutti, C., et al. (2005). Expression of SMAP-29 cathelicidin-like peptide in bacterial cells by intein-mediated system Protein Expr. Purif.. 39, 160-168. PubMedID: 15642466
  94. Colussi, P.A. and Taron, C.H. (2005). Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 promoter variants that lack function in bacteria but retain full function in K. lactis Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 71, 7092-7098.
  95. Shimizu, Y. Kanamori, T. and Ueda, T. (2005). Protein synthesus by pure translation systems Methods. 36, 299-304.
  96. Ge, X., et. al. (2005). Self-cleavable stimulus responsive tags for protein purification without chromatography J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11228-9.
  97. Girish, A., et al. (2005). Site-specific immobilization of proteins in a microarray using intein-mediated protein splicing Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.. 15, 2447-51. PubMedID: 15863295
  98. Goodin, J. L., et al. (2005). Yersinia pestis outer membrane type III Protein Expr. Purif. . 40, 152-163.
  99. Grzybowska, B., Szweda, P. and Synowiecki, J. (2004). Cloning of the thermostable alpha-amylase gene from Pyrococcus woesei in Escherichia coli: isolation and some properties of the enzyme Mol. Biotechnol. . 26, 101-110.
  100. Durek T., Goody R.S and Alexandrov K. (2004). In vitro semisynthesis and applications of C-terminally modified Rab proteins Methods Mol Biol.. 283, 233-244.
  101. Guo, C., et al. (2004). Intein-mediated fusion expression, high efficient refolding, and one-step purification of gelonin toxin Protein Expr Purif.. 37, 361-367. PubMedID: 15358358
  102. Pezza, J.A., Allen, K.N. and Tolan, D.R. (2004). Intein-mediated purification of a recombinantly expressed peptide Chem Commun (Camb). 21, 2412-2413.
  103. Romanelli, A., et al. (2004). Semisynthesis of a segmental isotopically labeled protein splicing precursor: NMR evidence for an unusual peptide bond at the N-extein-intein junction Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101, 6397-6402.
  104. Takeda, S.,et al. (2004). Site-specific conjugation of oligonucleotides to the C-terminus of recombinant protein by expressed protein ligation Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.. 14(10), 2407-10. PubMedID: 15109622
  105. Hemelaar, al. (2004). Specific and covalent targeting of conjugating and deconjugating enzymes of ubiquitin-like proteins Mol. Cell Biol.. 24, 84-95.
  106. Durek, T., et al. (2004). Synthesis of fluorescently labeled mono- and diprenylated Rab7 GTPase J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 126, 16368-16378.
  107. Lue, R.Y., et al. (2004). Versatile protein biotinylation strategies for potential high-throughput proteomics J Am. Chem. Soc.. 126, 1055-1062.
  108. Hong, S.H., and Maret, W. (2003). A fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for the beta-domain of metallothionein Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 2255-2260.
  109. Schaffer, L., et al. (2003). Assembly of high-affinity insulin receptor agonists and antagonists from peptide building blocks Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 4435-9.
  110. Salazar, J.C., et al. (2003). Coevolution of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with its tRNA substrates Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 13863-13868.
  111. Walters, K.J., et al. (2003). DNA -repair protein hHR23a alters its protein structure upon binding proteasomal subunit S5a Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . 100, 12694-12699.
  112. Yee, C.S., et al. (2003). Generation of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase by intein chemistry: insertion of 3-nitrotyrosine at residue 356 as a probe of the radical initiation process Biochemistry. 42, 14541-14552.
  113. Wuebbens, M. M. and Rajagopalan, K. V. (2003). Mechanistic and mutational studies of Escherichia coli molybdopterin synthase clarify the final step of molybdopterin biosynthesis J. Biol. Chem. . 278, 14523-14532.
  114. Scheibner, K.A., Zhang, Z. and Cole, P.A. (2003). Merging fluorescence resonance energy transfer and expressed protein ligation to analyze protein-protein interactions Anal. Biochem. . 317, 226-232.
  115. Zuberek, J., et al. (2003). Phosphorylation of eIF4E attenuates its interaction with mRNA 5' cap analogs by electrostatic repulsion: intein-mediated protein ligation strategy to obtain phosphorylated protein RNA. 9, 52-61.
  116. Bonsager, B.C., et al. (2003). Purification and characterization of the beta-trefoil fold protein barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli Protein Expr. Purif. . 2,
  117. David, R., et al. (2003). Semisynthesis and application of carboxyfluorescein-labelled biologically active human interleukin-8 Biol. Chem.. 384, 1619-1630. PubMedID: 14719805
  118. Rak, A., et al. (2003). Structure of Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor in complex with prenylated YPT1 GTPase Science. 302, 646-50.
  119. Sinars, C.R., et al. (2003). Structure of the large FK506-binding protein FKBP51, an Hsp90-binding protein and a component of steroid receptor complexes Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 868-873.
  120. Zhang, Z., et al. (2003). The role of C-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of SHP-1 explored via expressed protein ligation J. Biol. Chem.. 278, 4668-4674.
  121. Wojciechowski CL, Cardia JP, and Kantrowitz ER. (2002). Alkaline phosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium T. maritima requires cobalt for activity Protein Sci. 4, 903-911.
  122. Wojciak, J.M., et al. (2002). Arm-site binding by lambda -integrase: solution structure and functional characterization of its amino-terminal domain Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . 99, 3434-3439.
  123. Camarero, J.A., et al. (2002). Autoregulation of a bacterial sigma factor explored by using segmental isotopic labeling and NMR Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99, 8536-8541.
  124. Moolenaar GF, et al. (2002). Cho, a second endonuclease involved in Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US. 99, 1467-1472.
  125. Zhong, Q., et al. (2002). Endosomal localization and function of sorting nexin 1 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99, 6767-6772. PubMedID: 11997453
  126. Humphries, H. E., Christodoulides, M. and Heckels, J. E. (2002). Expression of the class 1 outer-membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis in Escherichia coli and purification using a self-cleavable affinity tag Protein Expr. Purif. . 26, 243-8. PubMedID: 12406678
  127. Singleton, S. F., et al. (2002). Intein-mediated affinity-fusion purification of the Escherichia coliRecA protein Protein Expr. Purif. . 26, 476-488. PubMedID: 12460773
  128. Nakano, S., et al. (2002). Multiple pathways of Spx (YjbD) proteolysis in Bacillus subtilis J. Bacteriol. 184, 3664-3670.
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Protein Expression and Purification: Selection Chart

Each NEB expression technology offers different advantages which enable you to choose the strategy that best suits your protein expression and purification needs.